Home Archives 2016 January

Monthly Archives: January 2016

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The following are the differant committee regularly asking for Kerala Public Service Examinations.The exam conducted by KPSC give special focus to ask questions in this sections

Economic Committees


Asoka Mehta . Reforms in panchayath Raj
Bhagawati . Unemployment
Bhootlingam . Wage, Income and prices
C Rao . Agricultural policy
C. Rao . Agricultural policy
Chatalier . finance to small scale industry
Chesi . Direct taxes
D. R Mehta . Review progress and recommend improvement measures of IRDP
Dantwala . Employments
Dave . Mutual funds
Dharia . public distribution system
G Sundharam . Export credit
G. V Ramakrishna . Disinvestment commission
Gadgil . Lead banking system
Godwala . Rural finance
Indira Goswami . Industrial sickness
Janakiramanan . Securities transactions of bank and financial institutions
K Madhav Das . Urban cooperative banks
Kamath . Education loan scheme
Karve . Education loan scheme
Khusrau . Agricultural credit
L K Jha . indirect taxes
L.C Gupta . trading of shares
Mahadevan . Single window system
Malhotra . Insurance privatization
Narasimhan I&II . Banking sector reforms
Pro sukhamonyChakravarthy . Working of Indian monetary system
Purshottam das . Agricultural finance and cooperative societies
R.S Sarkaria . Central state relationship
Raghavan . competition law
Raja Chelliah . Tax reforms
Sen . Decentralization of powers to panchayth Raj institutions
Tandon . Industrial sickness
Usha thorat . financial inclusion
Venkataswami . Deals with the enquiry of tehalka tape exposure of bribery defense deal
Vijay Kelkar . Direct and indirect tax structures
Wanchoo . Direct taxes
Y V Reddy . Reforms in small savings


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The details regarding the river system in India plays an important role any Kerala Public Service Examinations.That may be the Rank making points to Kerala Public Service Examination.So study each point with utmost care

Details Regarding the River Brahmaputra

Passing through Countries: China, India, Bangladesh, Tibet

Passing through States: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh

Tributaries: Dibang River, Lohit River, Dhansiri River, Kameng River, Manas River,Raidak River, Jaldhaka River, Teesta River

Length 2,900 km



  • Brahmaputra is the third major antecedent river of India flowing from Himalayan region towards the northern plains.
  • The 2900 Km Brahmaputra is longer than the Ganges. But only one third of the river passes through India.
  • The average depth of the river is 124 feet (38 m) and maximum depth is 380 feet (120 m).
  • Most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name.
  • The Brahmaputra river (also called as “Burlung-Buthur” by the Bodo people of Assam), calledYarlung Tsangpo in Tibetan language.
  • Brahamputra originates from the manasarovar lake in western Tibet. If flows for a long distance parallel to the Himalayan ranges in an easterly direction through Tibet. Here it is known as the Tsangpo.
  • It takes a southward turn and enters India in eastern Arunachal Pradesh under the nameDihang.
  • It gets the name Brahmaputra after the influence of the Luhit, the Dihang and Dibang.
  • The final stretch of the Brahmaputra lies in Bangladesh. Here it meets the Ganga and the combined stream called Padma and further downstream it is named Meghna.
  • The Ganga and the Brahmaputra join in Bangladesh and form the extensive delta ofsunderbans. It derives the name from the Sundari tree that grows widely in this region.
  • Details Regarding the RiverGanga

  • Passing through Countries: India, BangladeshPassing through Countries States: Uttarakhand,Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal
    Tributaries: Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Yamuna,Tamsa, Son, Punpun, Betwa, Chambal, Tons, Ken, Sindh, Hindon, Sharda

    Length 2,525 km


    • It is the largest drainage system of India carrying the run off of about 25 percent of the total land area of country.
    • The river ganga is longest river 2525 Km in India. Its source is at Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas.
    • Ganga the main stream is constituted major head stream, the alakananda and Bhagirathi. These two head stream of the Ganga join at Devaprayg.
    • The source of the Alakananda is near the Tibetan border and that of the Bhagirathi nearGangotri.
    • The Ganga is joined by the Yamuna near Allahabad.
    • Yamuna rise at the Yamunotri glacier. It flows towards the south upto Agra and father down towards the south-east direction till it joins the Ganga at Allahabad. Chambal, Sind , Betwaand the Ken are its important tributaries.
    • The Chambal rises near Mhow in the vindhyan range and joins Yamuna river in the southern part of the Etwah District.
    • The sind, the Berwa and the ken flows towards the north and form many ravines in the Gangaplain.
    • The son originating from Amarkantak Pleteu joins Ganga near Ramnagar.
    • The Ram Ganga rising in the Kumaon Himalyas runs for 690 km before joining Ganga nearKanauj.
    • The Gandok rising near the Nepal-China border enters Bihar in Cahmparan district and meetsGanga on its left at sonapur.
    • Ganga is known by the name Padma in Bangladesh.
    • Ganga had been declared as Indias National River in November 2008.
    • It has been considered the holiest of all rivers by Hindus.
    • Details Regarding the RiverIndus

      Passing through Countries : Pakistan, India,China

      Length: 3,200 km

      Tributaries : Zanskar River, Chenab River, Sutlej River, Soan River, Beas River, Ravi River,Shyok River, Gilgit River, Kabul River, Kurram River, Gomal River,Jhelum River


      • It is one of the largest river systems in the world. River Indus rises from Kailas range in the Tibetan plateau region.
      • The Indus is the western most of the Himalayan Rivers. After flowing through Pakistan, Indus falls into Arabian sea.
      • River Indus is an antecedent river as it is considered as older than the Himalayas.
      • Sutlej is the most important amongst the tributaries of Indus.
      • River Sutlej rises beyond the Himalayas and has cut a gorge through the central Himalayan range. The total length of the Sutlej is about 1050 km in India.
      • The Ravi is the smallest river of Punjab and its well known as the River of Lahore. It rises nearRohtang pass in the Kulu hills of Himachal Pradesh. Its total length is 725 km.
      • The Chenab is the largest of Indus tributaries. It has a total length of 1,800 km In India.
      • The Jhelum, an important tributary of the Indus flowing through the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
      • The Beas rise at Beaskund near the Rohtang pass in Himachal Pradesh.

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The following Current Affairs details should study clearly because this details are frequently asking for Kerala Public Service Examination-Both offline and online PSC Examinations of Kerala Public Service Commissions


The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Japanese Isamu Akasaki, HiroshiAmano and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”.



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”.



American-British scientist John OKeefe and husband-and-wife team May-Britt andEdvard Moser have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 for discovering an inner GPS in the brain.



Children’s rights activisits Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan and Kailash Satyarthi of India are the 2014 winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education.



The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2014 is awarded to the French writer Patrick Modiano for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation.



French economist Jean Tirole has won the 2014 Nobel Prize for economics for his work on how to “tame” the big businesses that dominate public monopolies like railways, highways and telecommunications.

Miss World 2013

63rd edition of the Miss World pageant, was held at Bali, Indonesia

Winner: Megan Young of the Philippines

This is the first time the Philippines won the title of Miss World since its creation in 1951

India’s representative: Navneet Kaur

1951 held at Sweden Winner: Kicki Hakansson

1966 India Reita Faria

1994 India Aishwarya Ra

1997 India Diana Hayden

1999 India Yukta Mookhey

2000 India Priyanka Chopra

Miss Universe 2013

62nd Miss Universe pageant held at the Crocus City Hall in Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast, Russia

Winner: Gabriela Isler of Venezuela

India’s representative: Manasi Moghe


1952 held at Finland Winner: Armi Kuusela

1994 India(New delhi) Sushmita Sen

2000 India(Bangalore) Lara Dutta


51th edition of Femina Miss World India 2014: Koyal Rana (Jaipur)

2013: Navneet Kaur Dhillon (Punjab)

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Indian Government

The following brief explanations about executive and judiciary is frequently appearing for Kerala Public Service Examinations.And also given the description about national anthem ,national flag and national calendar

The Prime Minister is the Head of the Government and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who forms the Cabinet Ministry.

Legislative Branch

The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lokh sabha (House of the People)and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States)forming both the house of the Parliament.Parliament as whole comprised the president ,Lokh Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system,followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.

National Flag

The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three.In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes which represents the chakra.Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Saranath Lion Capital of Asoka.The design of the National flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 July 1947.The Indian national flag was designed in 1916 by Pingali Venkayya from Machilipatnam.

State Emblem

The state emblem is an adaptation from the Saranath Lion Capital of Asoka.In the original,there are four lions,standing back to back,mounted on an abacus with a Frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant,a galloping horse,a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.It was carved out of a single block of polished sandstone.The Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law(Dharma Chakra).

The Government of India adopted the state emblem on 26 January 1950.Only three lions are visible ,the fourth being hidden from view in the adopted emblem.The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left.Outlines of other wheels can be seen on extreme right and left.The bell shaped lotus has been omitted.Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad,meaning Truth Alone Triumphs,are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

National Anthem

The song Jana-Gana-Mana,composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore,was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.

Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds.

National Anthem was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Kolkata Session of the Indian National Congress.The complete song consists of five stanza.

National Song

The song Vande Mataram composed in Sanskrit by Bankim Chandra Chatterji has been adopted as the national song of India.It has been adopted as the national song of India.It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana.The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National congress.We adopted the first stanza only.

National calendar

The national calendar based on the Saka Era,with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for official purposes.

Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.

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Kerala Public Service Commission Examinations Asking Details-Carefully study those who are preparing offline and online Kerala Public Service Examinations

Exploring the beauty of wildlife sanctuaries in India has its own appeal. Whether the beasts or other beings of the jungles, watching them at their natural habitats has always been a delightful as well as speculating experience.

Wildlife sanctuaries in India have been extremely successful in conserving the wildlife of India. They are the ideal place to witness the imposing beauty of the forests and their endless range of wildlife.

Here is a list of top 10 wildlife sanctuaries in India:

1. Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand

Among all the national parks in India, the Corbett National Park is the oldest and one of the best among the top 10 national parks in India. It was established in 1936 to protect the imposing Bengal Tigers. Located at the foothills of the Himalayan range of Uttarakhand, Corbett National Park is one of the hot spots of the wildlife lovers.

This park has been named after the popular wildlife story writer Jim Corbett. Beauty and wilderness of this park attracts enthusiasts from various parts of the globe. This wildlife tourist destination of India has also been featured in many wildlife documentaries in order to raise the awareness towards the mighty and stunning Bengal Tigers.

Kaziranga National Park is the only natural habitat of the endangered One-Horned Rhinos in India as well as in the world. Located in the Golaghat district of Assam,Kaziranga National Park is one of the largest wildlife sanctuaries to explore the wildlife of Northeast India. It is also a highly visited park among the top 10 national parks in India

2. Kaziranga National Park, Assam

This park also boasts of its number of tigers and other wildlife species. Due to the noteworthy number of tigers, Kaziranga National Park has been declared as Tiger Reserve Forest in 2006. Other wildlife consists Elephants, Wild Buffaloes and Swamp Deer. The park also witnesses a large number of migratory birds during the winters

3. Bandipur National Park, Karnataka

The Bandipur National Park is the most popular among all the national parks in South India. It is a natural home to Elephants and several other endangered species. Lush forest of the Deccan Plateau and the Western Ghats makes this park one of the beautiful parks in India. The park is located 80 km away from Mysore and almost 215 km away from Bangalore.

4.Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh

The Bandhavgarh National Park is another enticing name in the list of national parks of India. Located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh, it is one of the largest national parks of Madhya Pradesh. Declared as a national park in 1968, this park has a noteworthy number of Tigers in India.

This park also has a significant number of Leopards and Deer. Among all the attractions of Bandhavgarh National Park, White Tigers are the most spectacular.

5.Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh

Image Source:Meghdut Gorai Flickr

Kanha National Parkis another sought after destination in the list of national parks of Madhya Pradesh. Established in the year 1955, this park has gained a lot of attention due to its efforts in saving the rare and almost extinct species of the Swamp Deer, also known as Barasingha. It is also one of the well-maintained parks in Asia.

The other feature of the Kanha National Park is its sunset point called Bamni Dadar. Almost the entire park can be seen from this point. It offers the most eye-catching views of the animals in their natural habitat.

6.Gir National Park and Sasan Gir Sanctuary, Gujarat

The Gir National Park and the Sasan Gir Sanctuary of Gujarat are the only wildlife sanctuaries in India that have Asiatic Lions. October-June is the ideal time to visit the place and watch these majestic beasts strolling in their territories.

The park was established on 18th September 1965 and it is one of the largest and elegantly preserved areas for the Asiatic Lions. Rivers and streams flowing through this national park remain occupied by the dwellers of the park.

7.Keoladeo Ghana National Park Bharatpur, Rajasthan

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is one of the man-made wetlands in India that has been declared as a National Park. It was formerly called as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.

This park hosts a large number of avifauna during the summers and is considered as one of the best national parks to observe exotic migratory birds and other birds of India. Located in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan, this park serves as a primary centre for ornithologists and other zoological studies.

8.Periyar National Park, Kerala

The Periyar National Park, Kerala is the only national park in South India as well as in India that has an artificial lake flowing through the forests. Located on the evergreen hills of the Western Ghats, this wildlife sanctuary is also one of the Tiger Reserve Forests in India.

While boating in the Periyar Lake, visitors can behold the mighty beasts of this park, quenching their thirsts on the lakesides. Elephants, Deer, Nilgiri Tahrs and Langurs are the other attractions of this park.

[Explore wilderness of Kerala]

9. Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh

hile visiting the Pench National Park in Madhaya Pradesh, the childhood fantasy of most of the visitors will turns into reality. Rudyard Kiplings The Jungle Book is based on the natural surroundings of this national park; this park is also known as Mowgli Land.

While Tigers are the most dominant species of this park, Leopards, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Barking Deer are some of the other attractions. With more than 170 species of birds, this park has also become one of the best places for birdwatchers.

10. Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan

The Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan, is one of the royal national parks in India. It is ranked as one of the top 10 wildlife sanctuaries in India.

The majestic Tigers are the pride of this national park.Surrounded by the Banas and Chambal River, this park serves as an ideal habitat for the predators and other animals of this park. Leopard, Nilgai, Wild Boar, Sambar and Hyena are some of the major animals found in this park. Tiger Safaris are immensely popular among the visitors of Ranthambore National Park.

[Book NowRanthambore Tiger Adventure]

Here are other 10 wildlife sanctuaries and national parks which are as important as above top 10:

1. Manas National Park, Assam

Considered as one of the youngest names in the list of National Parks in India, the Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam has a large number of rare and endangered species. Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hod are some of the most endangered species of this park.

[Check out 5 Best things to do in Assam]

This park boasts of its 55 species of mammals, 380 species of birds and a substantial number of reptiles and amphibians. Asian Elephant, Indian Rhinoceros, Water Buffaloes, Leopard and Assamese Macaques are the other dwellers of this park. It is also one of the popular destinations for river rafting.

2. Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka

Nagarhole National Park is located in Mysore district of Karnataka and is a popular destination for Tiger spotting. It is also known as Rajiv Gandhi National Park. With quite a large number of Tigers, this park also has a significant number of Indian Bison, Leopard, Sloth Bear and Elephant.

Forests of this park are extremely rich with several species of high commercial valued trees. Teak, Sandalwood and Silver Oak are the major trees found in this park. Along with the endangered Mugger Crocodile, this park also has more than 250 species of birds, 96 species of Dung Beetles and 60 species of Ants.

[Have a riveting time in these places around Bangalore]

3. Sunderbans National Park

Sunderbans National Park is one of the largest and oldest in India. Located in the deltaic region of India, this park also shares its boundaries with Bangladesh. Covered with mangrove forests, Sundarbans is the original abode of the stunning Royal Bengal Tigers.

It has the highest number of Bengal Tigers than any other parks in the world. Salt-Water Crocodile can also be found in this park. Sundarbans is extremely rich in avifauna, aqua fauna and reptiles. Some of the other endangered species in this park are Gangetic Dolphin, River Terrapin, Hawks Bill Turtle and Mangrove Horseshoe Crab.

4. Sariska National Park, Rajasthan

Sariska National Park is located in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. Though it was declared as a Wildlife Reserve in 1955, due to the large number of Tigers within this park, it was later declared as one of the Tiger Reserve Forests in 1978.

Sariska National Park was the first national park in the world, which was successfully adapted by the majestic Royal Bengal Tigers as their natural habitat. Leopard, Jungle Cat, Stripped Hyena and Golden Jackal are also found in this national park.

5.Dudhwa National Park,Uttar Pradesh

The Dudhwa National Park, a part of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, is situated in Uttar Pradesh. History of this park lies back into 1958, when it was declared as a wildlife sanctuary for Swamp Deer. Later, in 1978, it was declared as a Tiger Reserve due to its large number of tigers.

Panna National Park, Madhya Pradesh

Panna National Park is one of the best maintained National Parks of India. Declared as a Tiger Reserve Forest of India in 1994, this park suffered a heavy downfall in the number of Tigers due to poaching.

Among other animals found in this park, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar and Sloth Bear are found abundantly in this park. Bar-headed Goose and King Vultures are the most commonly found birds among the 200 species of its avifauna.

7. Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra

Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project, a Tiger Reserve in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra is the oldest and the largest National Park in Maharashtra. Bengal Tigers, Leopards, Stripped Hyena and Jungle Cats are some of the commonly found carnivores of this park. Sloth Bears, Gaur, Nilgai and Spotted Deer are the herbivores.

Forests of this park always bear the green colour due to the geographical topography of the parks location. Axle-wood, a fire-resistant species of trees can be commonly found in this park. Among the other species, Black Plum, Arjun and Palas are dominant.

8. Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala

m_Chinnar 1

Image Source:Dhruvaraj S Flickr

After the Periyar National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the largest wildlife sanctuaries in Kerala. This sanctuary is located on the Western Ghats and shares its border with Tamil Nadu on the Annamalai Hills. Among the 34 species of mammals found in this sanctuary, Panthers, Spotted Deer, Indian Elephant, Tiger and Nilgiri Tahr are the most spectacular.

[Wanna know about other wildlife destinations in Kerala]


Image Source:Kerala Tourism Flickr

It is also the dwelling of Mugger Crocodiles and more than 240 species of exotic birds. The presence of Thoovanam Waterfalls within the forests has made this sanctuary, one of the popular trekking and camping destinations in Kerala.

[Check outChinnar Overnight camping tour]

9. The Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh

m_Himalyan National Park

The Great Himalayan National Park lies among the lush coniferous forests of and the snow-capped mountain peaks Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. It is one of the high altitude national parks in India. While the location of this park is itself a stunning feature, the emerald meadows in some portions of the park makes it one of the stunning parks in India.

[Check out The Great Himalayan National Park Expedition]

Snow Leopard, Himalayan Brown Bear, Blue Sheep, Musk Deer and Himalayan Thar are the commonly found animals in this park. It also houses 181 species of birds, and many more species of reptiles, annelids, amphibians and insects.

10.Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka


Image Source:Ruben Swieringa Flickr

Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary is the second largest wildlife sanctuary in Karnataka. Located on the banks of the Kali River, it is one of the highly visited wildlife sanctuaries in India. Black Panther, Flying Squirrel, Tiger, Elephant and Leopard can be easily spotted in this sanctuary.

m_Dandeli 1

Image Source: Vishal R Flickr

Among the wide range of amphibians, Crocodiles are the major attraction of this sanctuary. It is also an ideal place for river rafting, trekking, Bird watching, Tiger and Crocodile spotting.

[Book NowDandeli Adventure tour]

Note: We have included National Parks in this list since there is a fine difference between a wildlife sanctuary and a national park.


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Indian History :Chronology of Events-(Kerala Public Service Examinations-Section 2)

The following details are asking for Kerala Public Service Examinations.Understand the following details clearly

  • 483 BC:First Buddhist council at Rajagriha
  • 383 BC:Second Buddhist council at Vaishali
  • 350 BC:Panini ,a resident of Gandhara ,describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhayi
  • 333 BC:Persian rule in the north west ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the great ,who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenind Empire.
  • 326 BC:Ambhi,king of Taxila surrenders to Alexander.Porus,who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the battle of the Hydaspes
  • 321 BC:Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire Mauryan capital city is Pataliputra(Modern Patna in Bihar)
  • 305 BC:Chandra Gupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
  • 304 BC:Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants.Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
  • 273 BC:Ashoka the Great ,grandson of Chandragupta Maurya ,ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
  • 266 BC:Asoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran.

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Indian History :Chronology of Events-(Kerala Public Service Examinations)(Section 1)

The following details are inevitable part of any Kerala Public Service Examinations.Kerala Public Service Commissions are specially concentrating to include the following details.

  • 7000BC:Mehrgarch Culture begins,which was one of the Worlds earliest Neolithic cultures
  • 5500 BC: Period II Mehrgarch begins
  • 4800 BC:Period III Mehrgarch begins
  • 3500 BC: Period IV Mehrgarch begins
  • 3300 BC: Period IV Mehrgarch ends
  • 3300 BC:Antecedents of the Indus Valley Civilization begin,one of the worlds three earliest urban civilizations ,contemporary to Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
  • 2500 BC:Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization.The cities of Harappa,Lothal,Kalibangan and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2500 cities and settlement in northwestern and western India,and parts of Afghanistan and Iran.It covered a region of around one million square miles,which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined,it had superior urban planning and sewage systems.
  • 1900 BC:Late Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • 1500-1000 BC:Early vedic period or Rigvedic period
  • 1000-500BC:Later Vedic period,use of iron in India
  • 817 BC:Birth of Parswanantha,23rd Thirthankara
  • 600 BC:Sixteen Maha Janapadas.A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-democratic Republics rather than oligarchies,beginning of second urbanization.
  • 563 BC:Gautama ,founder of Buddhism born as prince of the Shakya tribe
  • 540-468 Bc:Period of Mahavira
  • 500 BC:Vedic Civilization comes to an end after the Vedic religion evolves into early Hinduism.

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Blue Colour of Sky

The following details are including in the objective type and descriptive type of Kerala Public Service Examinations.This points are very useful in the online test conducted by Kerala Public Service Commissions

As sunlight travels through earths atmosphere ,the light get bounced in all direction as it encounters the atmospheric particles .This is clled scattering of light .Lights of shorter wavelength is scattered more than light of longer wavelengths.Scattering of light causes the blue colour of sky and the reddening of sun at sunrise or sunset.

Speed of Sound waves through different media

 (Key points in the Kerala Public Service Examinations)

Medium Temperature (degree) Speed(m/s)
Air 0 333.3
Hydrogen 0 1286
Water 15 1450
Copper 20 3560
Iron 20 5130
Granite 20 6000
Vulcanized rubber 0 54

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Carnatic Music

Carnatic music ,derived in South India is one of the oldest and complicated music system of the world.It is deeply based on the Ragas(melodic scales)and Talas(rhythmic cycles).There are seven rhythmic cycles and 72 Melakartha Ragas in Carnatic music.The basic feature of Carnatic music is its devotional element.

Purandara Dasa

Purandara Dasa is regarded as the father of Carnatic music

The Triumvirate of Carnatic Music


The saint the musician,great composer and devotee of Lord Sree Ram.Tyagaraja was born in Tiruvarur in Tanjavur districts of Tamilnadu in 1767.

Syama Sastri

Syama Sastri,the famous composer was born in Tiruvarur,where saint Tyagaraja also hails from.He introduced Swarajathis to the Carnatic music systems.

Muthuswami Dikshitar

Muthuswami Dikshitar was also born in Tiruvarur(1767-1835).Most of his compositions numbering to 500 are in Sanskrit.

Swati Tirunal

Swati Tirunal Rama Varma (1813-1847) the King of Travancore was a patron of music and a musician himself.He promoted both the streams of Carnatic and Hindustani classical music.He composed more than 500 compositions in Malayalam.

Hindustani Music

The North Indian Classical music has its roots in Samaveda.It was influenced by Persian music during the period of Delhi Sulthanate.Amir Khusrau (13 century AD)the courtier of Allauddin Khilji is called as the father of modern Hindustani music.