History of India
The Anthropologist consider India as a land of multi-races.Those who came to India as invaders mingled with the peoplehere,thus make India a land of diversities.
The presence of early man in India is indicated by the stone tools obtained from the deposits which could be dated back around 2.5 lakh years.The stone age has been divided into three,Palaeolithic,Mesolithic and Neolithic age
The important Palaeolithic tools were hand axe,cleavers,flakes and chopping tools.These type of rough stone tools have been discovered from Chotanagpur Plateau,Soan river valley in Pakisthan,Bolan valley in Mirzapur,Kurnool in Andhrapradesh and Adamgarch in Narmada Valley
The Mesolithic Age(Middle stone Age)
This is a period of transition from Palaeolithic Age to the Neolithic.A number of Mesolithic sites have been excavated in Western and Central India.These sites include Langhnaj(Gujarat),Adamgarch(Madhya Pradesh),Bagor and Tilwara(Rajasthan)southern part of UP and south of river Krishna.The earliest evidence of domestication of animals comes from Adamgarch(5500 BC)and Bagor(4500 BC)
Evidences from the Bhimbetka near Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh shows that the people of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic age practiced painting . Bhimbetka has more than 500 painted rock shelters
The Neolithic Age(New stone Age)
The Neolithic Age began in Indian subcontinent around 7000BC.Important Neolithic sites In India are Burzahons near Srinagar,Gufkral in Kashmir,Chirand in Bihar,Garo hills in Meghalaya,Allahabad and Mirzapur in Uttarapradesh ,Maski,Brahmagiri,Sanganakalli,Piklihal,Tekkalakota,Hullur,Kodakkal,Utnur and paiyapalli in South India
The Neolithic people were the first to start agriculture .People of Mehrgarch produced wheat ,cotton and ragi.They also domesticated animals.The Neolithic people led asettled life.The Mehrgarch people had stayed in mud-brick houses.They also learned the art of pottery making.
Copper was the first metal used by man.The period in which copper wsas used along with stone is referred as Chalcolithic age or stone copper period.The Chalcolithic culture was basically rural and it appeared by the second millennium BC .The most important Chalcolithic cultures are Banas in Rajasthan,the Kayatha and Malwa in Central India, and the Jorwe culture of Maharashtra
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus or Harappan culture arose in the north western part of the Indian sub continent.Nearly 1400 Harappan sites have been known so far.It is Sir John Marshall who used the term Indus civilization for the first time.Indus civilization flourished around 2500 BC ,in the neighbouring areas of River Indus.Some of the notable sites are Harappa(1921)by Daya Ram Sahini,Mohanjedaro by R.D.Banerjee(1922),Dolavira by JP.Joshi and R.S.Bisht,Kalibangan by Dr.A.Ghosh and Lothal by J.R.Rao.Chanhudaro,Banawali,Sutkayendor,Balakot,Surkotada and Kot Diji are some other important sites