Indian Struggle for Independence
After the battle of Plassey in 1757 ,the British achieved political power in India .And thei paramountcy was established during the tenure of Lord Delhousie ,who became the Governor General in 1848.He annexed Punjab ,Peshwar and the Pathan tribes in the north -west of India.And by 1856, the British conquest and its authority were firmly established .And while the British power gained and its heights during the middle of the 19th century ,discontent of local rulers ,the peasantry ,the intellectuals ,common masses and also of the soldiers who became unemployed due to the disbanding of the armies of various states that were annexed by the British became widespread .This soon broke out into a revolt which assumed the dimensions of the 1857 first war of Indian Independence
End of the East India Company
Consequent to the failure of the revolt of 1857 rebellion,one also saw at the end of the East India Companys rule in India and many important changes took place in the British Governments policy towards India which sought to strengthen the British rule through winning over the Indian princes ,the chief and landlords .Queen Victorias proclamation of November 1 ,1858 declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a secretary of State.
Formation of Indian National Congress
The foundations of Indian National Movement were laid by Surendra Nath Banerjee with the formation of Indian Association At Calcutta in 1876.The Indian Association was ,in a way the forerunner of the Indian National Congress, which was founded ,with help of A.O.Hume,retired British official.The first session of Indian National Congress was held in Bombay in December 1885 under the presidentship of W.C.Banerjee.A total of 72 delegates from all over India attended the session.
Partition Of Bengal,1905
Lord Curzon,Viceroy of India decided to partition Bengal for administrative purposes.The partition aimed at creating a new province of East Bengal and Assam,with apopulation of 31 million people with capital of Dhaka.Partition was part of the Divide and Rule Policy
In 1906, all India Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Aga Khan,Nawab Salimul Lab of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk
Meanwhile in 1909,the British Government announced certain reforms in the structure of Government in India which are known as Morley-Minto reforms.But these reforms came as a disappointment as they did not mark any advance towards the establishment of a representative Government .The provision of a special representation of the Muslims was seen as a threat to the Hindu-Muslim unity on which the strength of the National Movement rested .So,these reforms were vehemently opposed by all the leaders,including the Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah